Scientific Method Applied to Forensic Science

Excellent article on Reconstruction

Justice and Security

The procedure by which scientists, communally and over periods, attempt to assemble a precise interpretation of the world, is referred to as the scientific method.  The desired result is that of an unswerving, non-capricious and consistent portrayal.  Perceptions and interpretations of natural phenomena can be influenced by personal and cultural beliefs; however, the application of criteria and standard procedures assists in the minimization of these archetypal persuasions while developing a theory.  The scientific method attempts to reduce the presence of prejudice or bias in the assessor when examining theories and hypotheses.

The scientific method is comprised of four steps:

“1) observation and description of a phenomenon or group of phenomena; 2)  formulation of a hypothesis (or hypotheses) to explain the phenomena; 3)  use of the hypothesis to predict the existence of other phenomena, or to predict quantitatively the results of new observations; and

4) performance of experimental tests of the…

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Florida Child Protection News for January 2017

Florida Child Protection News is gathered for KARA by Dr. Denise R. Womer, Ph.D., a former law enforcement officer for 17 years and former DCF Investigator for the State of Florida. Dr. Womer has taught in higher education for 14 years and currently is a Professor for Kaplan University teaching in the School of Social and Behavior Sciences.

In Florida, fourteen news articles reviewed revealed infants and children suffered either abuse, neglect, or death from parents and or their caretakers. These parents or caretakers were discovered in some cases to be under the influence of drugs or alcohol, engaged in some form of domestic violence, left an infant or children unsupervised or intentionally physically assaulted the victim. This is only part of the story in Florida.

A Florida Law Professor at the University of Florida of Florida Levin College of Law who helps run the school’s Center for Children and Families was arrested Tuesday and charged with child abuse. Joseph Steven Jackson, 59, of Gainesville, tried to punch the child, a girl in her early teens, in the face during an argument, but the girl backed away as he swung, the arrest report says. The strike was a glancing blow, and the victim was not injured.

Also, results of a federal study examined the Florida Department of Children and Families foster care cases services released findings of foster care services. The agency found between April to September 2016 more than half of the children removed in 80 cases were placed in foster homes were without services and without following all safety plans. Florida in 2005, contracted out services to 17 different private service providers. The agency has 90 days to correct the deficiencies. The agency has already called all service providers around the table to find ways to rectify the issues in the federal review.

Next, the Florida Department Children and Families (DCF) also receives calls of human trafficking of children. A 54% increase from the previous year showed a total of 1,892 reports. The increase per DCF was due to increased training and screening tools developed between DCF, the Florida Department of Juvenile Justice and the Attorney General. DCF tracks human trafficking by three primary categories: sexual exploitation by a non-caregiver, such as an adult entertainment club or escort service; sexual exploitation by a parent, guardian, or caregiver; and labor trafficking per the Associated Press.

The Florida Department of Children and Families state website reports all child fatalities within the state. Causes of deaths are still under investigation. What was not found in the news throughout the state indicated 23 children have died due to abuse and neglect.

Online Dating: Avoiding Becoming a Victim

Are you safe dating online? There are risks you should know about and how to prevent becoming an online dating victim. Many times, the online encounter may lead to meeting in person. Be aware of the risks to minimize becoming a victim.

Here are some suggestions to protect yourself.

First, as you are registering for an online dating on their website consider protecting your identity.

1. Username: Do not use any portion of your name as the username.
2. Personal Information: Do not post personal information (Name, Address, Email Addresses, Phone numbers, or photographs identifying your location (Some photographs have GPS location embedded).

Next, what should you do if you meet someone online? How do you know if they are actually the person they tell you they are? Here are some ways you can check the information.

Second, if you meet someone of interest, do your homework on the person. Online dating websites do not conduct backgrounds on its members. Here are some suggestions to be your own advocate.

Social Media: Do you they have Facebook, twitter, or other social media websites you can review.

Photographs: If they have a picture save it to your computer and go to google images and load it there.

Email Addresses: Obtain their actual email address you can go to and research the location of where the email was sent and is it valid.

Phone numbers: There are numerous phone search websites you can use to help identify a person, reverse number research and some are free.

Clerk of Courts: If they do provide you with a real name and location you can search the clerk of courts website and find out criminal, civil and a whole host of other information.

National Sex Offender Registry: Every state has a Sexual Offender Website (

Google Searches: Search their name and any information you know about the person.

Meeting In Person

Always, be careful engaging in online virtual sexual encounters, these can be used to blackmail you and your family or published on websites. These behaviors may imply the online meeting for the first time is not what you intended. It is important that you play it safe and make sure you have a safety plan.

Meet in Public: You are on a blind date. Have your transportation, stay in public places and let someone know where you are going. Would you go to a motel and meet a total stranger in a room?

Phone Tracking: Have a friend virtually track you by phone the whole time.
Take a Friend: Consider taking a friend who is there observing the whole time from a distance or right next to you.

Follow Your Instincts: If anything does not feel right, cut it short and leave.
Going to your Vehicle: If you are alone, find someone in the establishment to walk you to your vehicle.

Driving Home: Be careful driving home, if you are being followed do not go to your house. Call the police and drive directly to the police station (Get Safe Online, n.d.).

Last, for more information review the resources.


Hansen, C. (2015). CWD Investigation: Exploring the dark side of online dating sites and Apps. Crime Watch Daily. Retrieved from

The United States Department of Justice. (n.d). Raising awareness of sexual abuse facts and statistics. Retrieved from

Get Safe Online Org. (n.d.). Online dating. Retrieved from




Warning Police and Public



Contact: DEA Public Affairs

(202) 307-7977

Press Release
DEA Issues Carfentanil Warning to Police and Public

Dangerous opioid 10,000 times more potent than morphine and 100 times more potent than fentanyl

SEP 22 – (Washington, D.C.) – DEA has issued a public warning to the public and law enforcement nationwide about the health and safety risks of carfentanil. Carfentanil is a synthetic opioid that is 10,000 times more potent than morphine and 100 times more potent than fentanyl, which itself is 50 times more potent than heroin. DEA, local law enforcement and first responders have recently seen the presence of carfentanil, which has been linked to a significant number of overdose deaths in various parts of the country. Improper handling of carfentanil, as well as fentanyl and other fentanyl-related compounds, has deadly consequences.

“Carfentanil is surfacing in more and more communities.” said DEA Acting Administrator Chuck Rosenberg. “We see it on the streets, often disguised as heroin. It is crazy dangerous. Synthetics such as fentanyl and carfentanil can kill you. I hope our first responders – and the public – will read and heed our health and safety warning. These men and women have remarkably difficult jobs and we need them to be well and healthy.”

Carfentanil is a Schedule II substance under the Controlled Substances Act and is used as a tranquilizing agent for elephants and other large mammals. The lethal dose range for carfentanil in humans is unknown. However, as noted, carfentanil is approximately 100 times more potent than fentanyl, which can be lethal at the 2-milligram range, depending on route of administration and other factors.

Carfentanil and other fentanyl-related compounds are a serious danger to public safety, first responder, medical, treatment, and laboratory personnel. These substances can come in several forms, including powder, blotter paper, tablets, and spray – they can be absorbed through the skin or accidental inhalation of airborne powder. If encountered, responding personnel should do the following based on the specific situation:

Exercise extreme caution. Only properly trained and outfitted law enforcement professionals should handle any substance suspected to contain fentanyl or a fentanyl-related compound. If encountered, contact the appropriate officials within your agency.

Be aware of any sign of exposure. Symptoms include: respiratory depression or arrest, drowsiness, disorientation, sedation, pinpoint pupils, and clammy skin. The onset of these symptoms usually occurs within minutes of exposure.

Seek IMMEDIATE medical attention. Carfentanil and other fentanyl-related substances can work very quickly, so in cases of suspected exposure, it is important to call EMS immediately. If inhaled, move the victim to fresh air. If ingested and the victim is conscious, wash out the victim’s eyes and mouth with cool water.

Be ready to administer naloxone in the event of exposure. Naloxone is an antidote for opioid overdose. Immediately administering naloxone can reverse an overdose of carfentanil, fentanyl, or other opioids, although multiple doses of naloxone may be required. Continue to administer a dose of naloxone every 2-3 minutes until the individual is breathing on his/her own for at least 15 minutes or until EMS arrives.

Remember that carfentanil can resemble powdered cocaine or heroin. If you suspect the presence of carfentanil or any synthetic opioid, do not take samples or otherwise disturb the substance, as this could lead to accidental exposure. Rather, secure the substance and follow approved transportation procedures.

Carfentanil is a fentanyl-related substance not approved for use in humans. In June, DEA released a Roll Call video to all law enforcement nationwide about the dangers of improperly handling fentanyl and its deadly consequences. Acting Deputy Administrator Jack Riley and two local police detectives from New Jersey appear on the video to urge any law enforcement personnel who come in contact with fentanyl or fentanyl compounds to take the drugs directly to a lab.

“Fentanyl can kill you,” Riley said. “Fentanyl is being sold as heroin in virtually every corner of our country. It’s produced clandestinely in Mexico, and (also) comes directly from China. It is 40 to 50 times stronger than street-level heroin. A very small amount ingested, or absorbed through your skin, can kill you.”

Two Atlantic County, NJ detectives were recently exposed to a very small amount of fentanyl, and appeared on the video. Said one detective: “I thought that was it. I thought I was dying. It felt like my body was shutting down.” Riley also admonished police to skip testing on the scene, and encouraged them to also remember potential harm to police canines during the course of duties. “Don’t field test it in your car, or on the street, or take if back to the office. Transport it directly to a laboratory, where it can be safely handled and tested.” The video can be accessed at:

On March 18, 2015, DEA issued a nationwide alert on fentanyl as a threat to health and public safety.

Fentanyl is a dangerous, powerful Schedule II narcotic responsible for an epidemic of overdose deaths within the United States. During the last two years, the distribution of clandestinely manufactured fentanyl has been linked to an unprecedented outbreak of thousands of overdoses and deaths. The overdoses are occurring at an alarming rate and are the basis for this officer safety alert. Fentanyl, up to 50 times more potent than heroin, is extremely dangerous to law enforcement and anyone else who may come into contact with it. As a result, it represents an unusual hazard for law enforcement.

Fentanyl, a synthetic opiate painkiller, is being mixed with heroin to increase its potency, but dealers and buyers may not know exactly what they are selling or ingesting. Many users underestimate the potency of fentanyl. The dosage of fentanyl is a microgram, one millionth of a gram – similar to just a few granules of table salt. Fentanyl can be lethal and is deadly at very low doses. Fentanyl and its related compounds come in several forms including powder, blotter paper, tablets, and spray.

More information about fentanyl, carfentanil and other dangerous synthetic opiates can be found at